Irish Agrarian Societies: the Rockite Movement and the Release of “Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy”

The third book in my Twins’ Trilogy, Lady Chandler’s Sister, leads us along a dark path in British history. The book culminates in early January 1822, which was when the Rockite movement had set its sights on having its demands taken seriously. 1821 – 1824  was a time of sustained agrarian violence. They were named after their mythical leader, “Captain Rock.” SJ Connolly in “Mass Politics and Sectarian Conflict, 1823-30” [in WE Vaughan (ed.) A New History of Ireland, V: Ireland Under the Union, 1: 1801-70, Oxford, 1989, page 81] says the Rockite movement was “primarily a pragmatic, even conservative, movement, concerned with limited and specific economic-based goals, including the regulation of rents, wages and tithes, the protection of poor tenants threatened with eviction and wider access to land for tillage.” 

However in an essay from Rebecca Preston, the author proposes “that the Rockites were significantly influenced by contemporary politics and played a central role in pre-Famine Irish political life.” She goes on to argue, “that the Rockite movement had a strong political dimension as they were perceived as a political threat by the British Government and were partially motivated by political grievances. It is acknowledged that the Rockites were not solely motivated by political agitation — the movement encompassed a multifaceted agenda. The myriad motivations, however, including economic, ideological, political and religious, were interconnected and contributed to the politicisation of the Rockites.” 

In the three years in which they operated in the six southwestern counties of Ireland, up to 1000 “accused” were beaten, 93 murdered, with 16 of those coming in an arson incident at Mullinghone in County Tipperary.

51C+HH-ecRL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg  In Captain Rock: The Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821 – 1824, James S. Donnelly, Jr., provides the reader with incident after incident of the aggression displayed and the government’s reaction. The book includes incident after incident of arson, murder, rape, mutilation, and names some 400 atrocities. The book’s description on Amazon reads:

“Named for its mythical leader “Captain Rock,” avenger of agrarian wrongs, the Rockite movement of 1821–24 in Ireland was notorious for its extraordinary violence. In Captain Rock, James S. Donnelly, Jr., offers both a fine-grained analysis of the conflict and a broad exploration of Irish rural society after the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

“Originating in west Limerick, the Rockite movement spread quickly under the impact of a prolonged economic depression. Before long the insurgency embraced many of the better-off farmers. The intensity of the Rockites’ grievances, the frequency of their resort to sensational violence, and their appeal on such key issues as rents and tithes presented a nightmarish challenge to Dublin Castle—prompting in turn a major reorganization of the police, a purging of the local magistracy, the introduction of large military reinforcements, and a determined campaign of judicial repression. A great upsurge in sectarianism and millenarianism, Donnelly shows, added fuel to the conflagration. Inspired by prophecies of doom for the Anglo-Irish Protestants who ruled the country, the overwhelmingly Catholic Rockites strove to hasten the demise of the landed elite they viewed as oppressors.

“Drawing on a wealth of sources—including reports from policemen, military officers, magistrates, and landowners as well as from newspapers, pamphlets, parliamentary inquiries, depositions, rebel proclamations, and threatening missives sent by Rockites to their enemies—Captain Rock offers a detailed anatomy of a dangerous, widespread insurgency whose distinctive political contours will force historians to expand their notions of how agrarian militancy influenced Irish nationalism in the years before the Great Famine of 1845–51.”

An article in the Irish Examiner, a review of Donnelly’s  book tells us, “In February 1822, a special commission in Cork charged 200 with Rockite or similar Whiteboy activity. Mercifully, only 15 were hanged. In the same month, the Insurrection Act introduced a sunset-to-sunrise curfew and summary justice for lawbreakers, of whom up to 330 per year were being transported in convict ships to Australia.

“Incidences of murder, arson, rape and mutilation are recorded by Donnelly in some detail, often gruesome. As a result, the comprehensive index, which names locations of more than 400 atrocities, gives modern residents anywhere in the southern counties a glimpse of their localities’ Rockite history and how much blood was spilt.

“Perhaps the most telling symptom of the near breakdown of rural Irish society in the 1820s was the 50,000 applications to a scheme of assisted emigration to Canada.

“Donnelly has theories aplenty for the historians and sociologists – for which the ordinary punter is advised to have their dictionary at hand. But what sets his book apart for non-academic readers are the reports from officials and information gleaned from newspapers, depositions and other sources. The author uses them to drill down to local level and bring us into a countryside riven by atrocities which are the symptoms of a non-functioning powder-keg society which was always just a spark away from igniting.

“Well before the trouble, trends were beginning in Irish agriculture which eventually set the scene for the rural protest movements of the late 18th and early 19th century. As livestock farmers expanded and took up more acres, a landless class of poor peasants and labourers also expanded.

“While better-off landowners were thriving from the mid-18th century to the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1813, inflation was slowly crippling the poor. While the landed elite were building their Georgian townhouses and Palladian mansions, the landless and land poor were falling behind.

“According to Donnelly, by 1841 there were 50,000 rich farmers averaging about 80 acres; 100,000 comfortable farmers averaging 50 acres; 250,000 family farmers averaging 20 acres; and 1.3 million poor peasants who laboured for the landowners and rented potato plots from them. The system offered the poor peasants just enough food, employment and land to ensure that their birth rates outstripped the rural Catholic middle class and that the rural social structure became more and more imbalanced with each year. At the top of the scale, absentee landlords worried little about the trouble brewing in Ireland, as long as sufficient rent came through to fund their high life in London.”

Other Sources: 

An Irish Apocalypse? 

Captain Rock: the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824 

Captain Rock and the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824

Ireland’s Forgotten ‘Rockite’ Rebellion 

Irish Immigration to Britain 

Political Dimension of Irish Rockite Movement

Whiteboys and Ribbonmen 

Arriving March 25, 2019

Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book Three in the Twins’ Trilogy

LCS eBook Cover-01

 

Sir Alexander Chandler knows his place in the world. As the head of one of the divisions of the Home Office, he has his hand on the nation’s pulse. However, a carriage accident  on a deserted Scottish road six months earlier has Sir Alexander questioning his every choice. He has no memory of what happened before he woke up in an Edinburgh hospital, and the unknown frightens him more than any enemy he ever met on a field of battle. One thing is for certain: He knows he did not marry Miss Alana Pottinger’s sister in an “over the anvil” type of ceremony in Scotland.

Miss Alana Pottinger has come to London, with Sir Alexander’s son in tow, to claim the life the baronet promised the boy when he married Sorcha, some eighteen months prior. She understands his responsibilities to King and Crown, but this particular fiery, Scottish miss refuses to permit Sir Alexander to deny his duty to his son. Nothing will keep her from securing the child’s future as heir to the baronetcy and restoring Sir Alexander’s memory of the love he shared with Sorcha: Nothing, that is, except the beginning of the Rockite Rebellion in Ireland and the kidnapping of said child for nefarious reasons.

An impressive ending to the beautifully crafted Twins’ Trilogy – Starr’s ***** Romance Reviews

Love. Power. Intrigue. Betrayal. All play their parts in this fitting conclusion to a captivating, romantic suspense trio. – Babe Galloway, Author & Reviewer

 

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Posted in book release, British history, eBooks, George IV, Georgian England, Great Britain, historical fiction, Ireland, Living in the Regency, publishing, real life tales, Regency era, suspense, trilogy | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Irish Agrarian Societies: The Ribbonmen, Part of the Plot of “Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy”

Whiteboyism, the subject of Monday’s post, essentially ceased to operate toward the end of the eighteenth century, although it never truly disappeared, for it resurrected its head in the Munster region (Counties Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterford) in the early nineteenth century. Unlike the whiteboys who proceeded them and the Rockites that followed, the Ribbonmen were more working class—farm laborers. Neither was it based in Catholic consciousness nor nationalism, but rather it acted as a force with which to be reckoned in defense of the rural poor. 

Grain prices dropped nearly 45% between 1814 and 1815. Therefore, farmers could no longer pay their rents to landowners, for the price of rents had been set when grain earned a higher wage. Laborers were ultimately thrown off their lands. Complaints also occurred to threats of evictions. 

One must remember during the early part of the 1800s, there were three major famines in Ireland: 1814 to 1816, 1821-1823, and 1831-1834. 1816 is often referred to as the Year Without Summer, and devastation hit Europe, England, the United Stares, etc.

Some experts point to an event on an estate in County Limerick as the impetus for the formation of the Ribbonmen. Supposedly, the new agent attempted to evict a large number of tenants who had fallen behind in the payment of their rents, but the truth is it was a combination of things: closing of common grazing grounds, the decline in grain prices, and another poor potato crop. Prior complaints had carried for the tithe wars as their banner. Meanwhile, Ribbonism, whose supporters were usually called Ribbonmen, was a 19th-century popular movement of poor Catholics in Ireland. The movement was also known as Ribandism. The Ribbonmen was active against landlords and their agents, and opposed “Orangeism, the ideology of the Protestant Orange Order. 

“The society was formed in response to the miserable conditions in which the vast majority of tenant farmers and rural workers lived in the early 19th century in Ireland. Its objective was to prevent landlords from changing or evicting their tenants. Ribbonmen also attacked tithe and process servers,  and later evolved the policy of Tenants’ Rights. The existence of “ribandmen” was recorded as early as 1817. The name is derived from a green ribbon worn as a badge in a button-hole by the members.

“Depending on the district, the society was variously known as the Fraternal Society, the Patriotic Association or the Sons of the Shamrock. The Ribbonmen’s organisation was similar to that of the Whiteboys or the Defenders of earlier periods. They were organised in lodges, and during the 1820s were in contact with certain organizations of Radicals in England.

“The ideology of the Ribbonmen supported the Catholic Association and the political separation of Ireland from Great Britain, and the rights of the tenant as against those of the landlord. The Ribbonmen were involved in violent (and sometimes deadly) riots with the Orange Order in the north of Ireland, and elsewhere used violence to resist paying tithes to the Protestant Church of Ireland. As the agitation for Catholic Emancipation grew, the tension between Ribbonism and Orangeism increased.

“On 26 July 1813 the Battle of Garvagh in County Londonderry  took place. Up to two hundred Catholic Ribbonmen attempted to destroy a tavern in Garvagh where the Orange Lodge met. They were armed with sticks and bludgeons, but Protestants were waiting inside armed with muskets and repelled them. One of the Ribbonmen was killed and the rest couldn’t gain access to the tavern and dispersed. The clash was commemorated in the song “The Battle of Garvagh.” [Ribbonism] [Murray, A.C. (1986). “Agrarian Violence and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Ireland: the Myth of Ribbonism”. Irish Economic and Social History13: 56–73.]

Pat Feeley tells us in his article Whiteboys and Ribbonmen, that Ribbonism leaned toward agrarian issues, not sectarian or political ones. When the price of cattle and other livestock rose in the pre-Famine years, landlords, many of them absentee ones, reduced the number of tenant farms and laborers – requiring less and less tillage. Most of the outbreaks of violence was between laborers and farmers. Feeley tells us, “Ribbonism spread through the rich farmlands of the Golden Vale, through the midland counties and into Roscommon and East Galway. It was not found in the western coastal districts where the farms were poor and the class divisions not so pronounced…. Violence was employed on a calculated, specific basis, in contrast to the gratuitous bloodletting of the faction fights and the sectarian riots. Victims were carefully selected for some infringement of the Ribbon code. Attacks were always clearly linked to a specific code — a particular eviction, a rise in rents, a protest against labourers being hired from another county. There was rarely much difficulty in ascribing a motive; the perpetrators took pains to publicise the reasons for the violence as a warning and a lesson to others. Violence was preventive or deterrent.” 

Other Sources: 

An Irish Apocalypse? 

Captain Rock: the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824 

Captain Rock and the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824

Ireland’s Forgotten ‘Rockite’ Rebellion 

Irish Immigration to Britain 

Political Dimension of Irish Rockite Movement

Whiteboys and Ribbonmen 

 

Arriving March 25, 2019 

Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy 

LCS eBook Cover-01

Posted in book release, British history, Church of England, estates, Georgian England, Georgian Era, history, Ireland, Living in the Regency, political stance, real life tales, research | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Irish Agrarian Societies: Whiteboys and Levellers, Part of the Plot of “Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy”

The Whiteboys and Levellers were mid 18th C and early 19th C secret agrarian societies located in Ireland, more specifically in the southwestern part of Ireland. The Whiteboys got their start in 1762 in County Waterford, when 18 men met act against those blocking common grazing. There were numerous groups in Limerick and Cork. They were opposed by the Catholic Church for the use of secret oaths of loyalty and sworn warnings against betrayal. The groups retaliated against the priests speaking out against them with their own brand of threats. They also spoke out against Catholic practices, such as an increase of fees collected at mass and charges for baptisms and marriages. 

Most people and many historians believe these groups were loosely organized and took up local issues only, mainly a defense of the peasants, tenant farmers, etc. Such groups had formed during the famines of 1741 and the one in 1756. In 1756, an act was passed to prevent the formation of such groups, especially those speaking out against tithes.

Over the series of articles I have planned in conjunction with the release of Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book Three of the Twins’ Trilogy, I hope to show these men were more politically engaged than many thought. They were also the sentinels, crying out their warnings of the coming potato famine and devastation. Unfortunately, few listened beyond their personal issues.

Although not a new phenomenon in rural Ireland, one of the first acts of resistance came in 1761 in Clogheen, a village in County Tipperary. Originally, the men in the group leveled the ditches that had been erected by landlords and graziers to keep others out of what was known as “common” grazing areas. Originally referred to a Levellers, the name changed when the groups took up other causes: rents, tithes, etc. Because the men wore white shirts, they became known as Whiteboys or Buachailli Bana. Nicholas Sheeby is a former Catholic parish priest serving the area. He was killed in 1766 because he was a vocal opponent of the practice of Anglican Church tithes. Elements of the Protestant Ascendancy [The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic, and social domination of  Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy, and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.] decided to make an example out of Sheeby. He was put on trial for murder and treason, but it was not a fair gathering. With no witnesses or proof offered, Sheeby was hung. [Full Text of “The Literary Life and Correspondence of the Countess of Blessington”]

1024px-Shanrahan

Shanrahan Graveyard, where Nicholas Sheehy is buried ~ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clogheen,_County_Tipperary#/media/File:Shanrahan.jpg

 

In his article “Whiteboys and Ribbonmen,” Pat Feeley writes, “There was a swing towards grazing and beef cattle farming between 1735 and 1760. There were a number of reasons for this: the exemption of pasture land from tithes, the lifting of the ban on exports of live cattle to Britain, the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War, with a consequent demand for provisions, and, finally, wealthy Catholics wishing to evade the Penal Laws had found that grazing was the safest form of farm investment. This development led to a drop in tillage, with landlords and farmers switching over to the rearing of cattle. As a result there was high unemployment among the labourers, and the smaller tenant farmers were forced off the land to make way for open pastures. Most labourers, if they were not to starve, had to rent potato ground, and they now found that the competition of pasture farming forced up the rents. 

“There was an act of parliament which laid down that five out of every hundred acres should be devoted to tillage, There was, however, no machinery for enforcing it. There was not in Ireland at the time any statutory provision for the maintenance of poor and displaced people, who accordingly, when the bad times came, starved or were thrown back on the charity of their relatives and neighbours.” 

Irish Media Man tells us, “Tithe payment was an obligation on those working the land to pay ten per cent of the value of certain types of agricultural produce for the upkeep of the clergy and maintenance of the assets of the Church.

“Among the features which differentiated the Whiteboy movement from earlier combinations was the almost universal use of oaths to bind its adherents together. Every member was compelled to take an oath and those who refused to swear, were threatened with being buried alive. Of the 14,000 insurgents estimated to be in arms in County Tipperary in 1763 practically all were sworn to be true to the cause. Though scholars have so far discovered no clear examples of secret societies that were oath bound before the Whiteboys, the notion that earlier associations of peasants or urban tradesmen had never implied such a simple device seems on its face highly improbable. But even if oath bound popular organizations did exist on at least a local scale before the early 1760s, the Whiteboys should still be considered innovators because they invested oaths with great practical and symbolic importance in fusing local activists into the wider network of a regional movement.

“Some oaths expressed specific aims of the insurgents, while others dealt with matters of organization and discipline, as did one oath found in the possession of a number of Whiteboys apprehended in April 1762. This source and other contemporary documents indicate many Whiteboys enrolled under the banner of the mystical leader Sieve Oultagh, whom they designated their queen. Precisely how this usage originated is unknown, but it almost certainly derived its currency from the popular tradition in song and poetry of personifying Ireland as a woman and its people as her children.

“The Whiteboys had other symbols and customs that were explicit and functional. The Levellers of Waterford and other counties erected gallows, made coffins, and dug graves in the public roads, all obviously intended as portents of the fate awaiting those who refuse to obey their mandates. To a number of prominent Whiteboy practices some contemporaries also attributed a revolutionary meaning which in all probability they did not possess. Many of the Whiteboys sported white cockades which carried an implication of Jacobitism. Some saw in this agrarian movement a popish plot to overthrow, with French help, the Protestant constitution in church and state. The Whiteboys attire was patterned after the dress of the French Camisards who had rebelled in the year 1702. No doubt, some Whiteboys, expecting a foreign invasion, boasted they would change or put down governments. But the cry commonly heard from many Whiteboys was long King George III and Queen Sive, more accurately, if still somewhat ambivalent, reflected their political sentiments.”

Other Sources: 

An Irish Apocalypse? 

Captain Rock: the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824 

Captain Rock and the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824

Ireland’s Forgotten ‘Rockite’ Rebellion 

Irish Immigration to Britain 

Political Dimension of Irish Rockite Movement

Whiteboys and Ribbonmen 

Arriving March 25, 2019 

Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book Three of the Twins’ Trilogy 

LCS eBook Cover-01

Sir Alexander Chandler knows his place in the world. As the head of one of the divisions of the Home Office, he has his hand on the nation’s pulse. However, a carriage accident  on a deserted Scottish road six months earlier has Sir Alexander questioning his every choice. He has no memory of what happened before he woke up in an Edinburgh hospital, and the unknown frightens him more than any enemy he ever met on a field of battle. One thing is for certain: He knows he did not marry Miss Alana Pottinger’s sister in an “over the anvil” type of ceremony in Scotland.

Miss Alana Pottinger has come to London, with Sir Alexander’s son in tow, to claim the life the baronet promised the boy when he married Sorcha, some eighteen months prior. She understands his responsibilities to King and Crown, but this particular fiery, Scottish miss refuses to permit Sir Alexander to deny his duty to his son. Nothing will keep her from securing the child’s future as heir to the baronetcy and restoring Sir Alexander’s memory of the love he shared with Sorcha: Nothing, that is, except the beginning of the Rockite Rebellion in Ireland and the kidnapping of said child for nefarious reasons.

An impressive ending to the beautifully crafted Twins’ Trilogy – Starr’s ***** Romance Reviews

Love. Power. Intrigue. Betrayal. All play their parts in this fitting conclusion to a captivating, romantic suspense trio. – Babe Galloway, Author & Reviewer

Posted in book release, British history, Church of England, Georgian Era, Great Britain, Ireland, Living in the Regency, real life tales, Regency era, religion, research, writing | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Plot Point: Agrarian Societies in Ireland, and the Release of “Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy”

41Bbqs4DilL._SX316_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg 41CDX9dYMJL._SX330_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgWho was Captain Rock? First, let’s begin with a quick overview, simply to set some parameters. “Captain Rock was a mythical Irish folk hero, and the name used for the agrarian rebel group he represented in the south-west of Ireland from 1821 – 1824. Arising following the harvest failures in 1816 and 1821, the drought in 1818 and the fever epidemic of 1816-19. Rockites, similar to the earlier Whiteboys, targeted the English and Anglo-Irish Feudal landowners. Captain Rock (or Rockites) were responsible for up to a thousand incidents of beatings, murder, arson and mutilation in the short time they were active. The rebel acts waning in 1824 with the return of “a bearable level of subsistence”. Captain Rock was the symbol for retaliation by “an underclass which had nothing left to lose”. Over this period and in subsequent years, well into the nineteenth century, threatening letters signed by “Captain Rock” (as well as other symbolic nicknames, such as “Captain Steel” or “Major Ribbon”) issued warnings of violent reprisals against landlords and their agents who tried to arbitrarily put up rents, collectors of tithes for the Protestant Church of Ireland, magistrates who tried to evict tenants, and informers who fingered out Rockites to the authorities.” 

Agrarian societies had been active in Ireland as far back as the 1600s, but I became especially interested in those of the early 1800s, specifically those during 1820 – 1822, the time frame for my next novel, Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy. One of the “bad guys” in book 2 of the Twins’ trilogy was an Irish baron, and the fate of Lord Kavanaugh was never decided. Therefore, in the final book of the trilogy, all loose ends must be addressed. That decision brought me to a closer study of the a character named “Captain Rock” and the Rockite movement. 

Before I continue, I have a small confession to make regarding my style of writing. I am a “pantser,” meaning I do not outline or plan my book in detail before writing the book by the “seat of my pants.” Captain Rock is the perfect example of what I mean. In the early drafts of the book, I have my hero, Sir Alexander Chandler, remark about his countenance being similar to an Irish ancestor, Captain Dongal Rockwell Chandler, a pirate and a smuggler, and affectionately called “Captain Rock.” At the time, I was unaware a the history of the Irish Captain Rock and the Rockite movement, but just as I required a twist to my story, I stumble across multiple essays and books on the good (or is that bad) captain, and, miraculously, he was active in the same time frame as the book takes place. I would like to say this was an unusual occurrence, but as it has happened with nearly every book I have written (all 39 of them), I just sit back and wait for the muses to have their say. I manage to pull lots of weeds from my flower garden in the meantime. 

Along with the Rockites there were movements like the “Whiteboys,” and the “Ribbonmen.” Irish Central tells us, “The Whiteboys were a secret Irish agrarian organization in 18th-century Ireland which took vigilante action to defend tenants’ land rights to subsistence farming. The group earned the moniker ‘Whiteboys’ due to their custom of wearing white smocks during their nightly raids. Some Irish immigrants who settled in the rural United States carried their rebellious spirit with them across the Atlantic, as a result of which ‘Whiteboy’ became a generic term for ‘rebel’ outside the cities. Back in Ireland, the Whiteboys usually referred to at the time as Levellers by the authorities, and by themselves as “Queen Sive Oultagh’s children”, “fairies”, “followers of Johanna Meskill” or “Sheila Meskill”, all symbolic figures supposed to lead the movement.

“The Whiteboys sought to address rack-rents, tithe collection, excessive priests’ dues, evictions, and other oppressive acts by landowners. Landlords and tithe collectors were their primary targets. The ‘boys ran a slick operation, priding themselves on extensive forward-planning and regular assemblies. Absolute loyalty was mandatory, and the Whiteboys were the first organization to invest the custom of swearing oaths with tremendous practical and symbolic importance. Whiteboy activism saw its first peak in County Limerick in 1761, quickly spreading to Tipperary, Cork, and Waterford. Initially activities focused only on specific grievances, and action was limited to leveling ditches that closed off common grazing land, and digging up ley lands and orchards.”

 

Ribbonmen or The Ribbon Society was principally an agrarian secret society, generally made up of rural Irish Catholics. The group came about in response to the miserable conditions placed upon tenant farmers and rural workers in the early 1820s. They meant to keep landlords from evicting tenants or raising rents. Ribbonmen also attacked tithe and process servers, and later evolved  the policy of Tenants’ Rights. The earliest notation of their existence was in 1817. Their name came from the green ribbon worn through the button-hole on a jacket or vest of its members. They were also known as the Sons of the Shamrock, the Patriotic Association, or the Fraternal Society. They supported the Catholic Association and the political separation of Ireland from Great Britain, along with their staunch support of tenants’ rights. Violent, and sometimes deadly clashes, occurred when the Ribbonmen came up against the Protestant  Orange Order in the North of Ireland. They specifically resisted paying tithes to the Protestant Church of Ireland. 

Ribbon-meeting-copy

Above: A sketch of Ribbonmen drinking whiskey at a meeting in a barn on the marquis of Bath’s estate in County Monaghan in 1851, from William Steuart Trench’s Realities of Irish life (London, 1868) ~ https://www.historyireland.com/uncategorized/ribbonism/

 

There is more to tell on the Rockite movement, Captain Rock, Whiteboys, etc. I hope you will return here in the next couple of weeks for more on this fascinating history.  

Other Sources: 

An Irish Apocalypse? 

Captain Rock: the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824 

Captain Rock and the Irish Agrarian Rebellion of 1821-1824

Ireland’s Forgotten ‘Rockite’ Rebellion 

Irish Immigration to Britain 

Political Dimension of Irish Rockite Movement

Whiteboys and Ribbonmen 

Arriving March 25, 2019

Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book Three of the Twins’ Trilogy

LCS eBook Cover-01

Sir Alexander Chandler knows his place in the world. As the head of one of the divisions of the Home Office, he has his hand on the nation’s pulse. However, a carriage accident  on a deserted Scottish road six months earlier has Sir Alexander questioning his every choice. He has no memory of what happened before he woke up in an Edinburgh hospital, and the unknown frightens him more than any enemy he ever met on a field of battle. One thing is for certain: He knows he did not marry Miss Alana Pottinger’s sister in an “over the anvil” type of ceremony in Scotland.

Miss Alana Pottinger has come to London, with Sir Alexander’s son in tow, to claim the life the baronet promised the boy when he married Sorcha, some eighteen months prior. She understands his responsibilities to King and Crown, but this particular fiery, Scottish miss refuses to permit Sir Alexander to deny his duty to his son. Nothing will keep her from securing the child’s future as heir to the baronetcy and restoring Sir Alexander’s memory of the love he shared with Sorcha: Nothing, that is, except the beginning of the Rockite Rebellion in Ireland and the kidnapping of said child for nefarious reasons.

An impressive ending to the beautifully crafted Twins’ Trilogy – Starr’s ***** Romance Reviews

Love. Power. Intrigue. Betrayal. All play their parts in this fitting conclusion to a captivating, romantic suspense trio. – Babe Galloway, Author & Reviewer

Posted in book release, British history, eBooks, Georgian Era, Great Britain, historical fiction, Ireland, Living in the UK, political stance, Regency era, research | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The “Comedy” Found in Jane Austen’s Novels

According to Literary Devices, “Comedy is a literary genre and a type of dramatic work that is amusing and satirical in its tone, mostly having a cheerful ending. The motif   of this dramatic work is triumph over unpleasant circumstance by creating comic effects, resulting in a happy or successful conclusion. There are five types of comedy in literature:

Romantic comedy involves a theme of love leading to a happy conclusion. We find romantic comedy in Shakespearean plays and some Elizabethan contemporaries. These plays are concerned with idealized love affairs. It is a fact that true love never runs smoothly; however, love overcomes difficulties and ends in a happy union.

“Ben Johnson is the first dramatist who conceived and popularized comedy of humors. The term humor derives from the Latin word humor, which means “liquid.” It comes from a theory that the human body has four liquids, or humors, which include phelgm, blood, yellow bile, and black bile. It explains that, when human beings have a balance of these humors in their bodies, they remain healthy.

Comedy of Manners deals with intrigues and relations of ladies and gentlemen living in a sophisticated society. This form relies upon high comedy, derived from sparkle and wit of dialogues, violations of social traditions, and good manners, by nonsense characters like jealous husbands, wives, and foppish dandies. We find its use in Restoration dramatists, particularly in the works of Wycherley and Congreve.

Sentimental drama contains both comedy and sentimental tragedy. It appears in literary circles due to reaction of the middle class against obscenity and indecency of Restoration Comedy of Manners. This form, which incorporates scenes with extreme emotions evoking excessive pity, gained popularity among the middle class audiences in the eighteenth century.

Tragicomedy contains both tragic and comedic elements. It blends both elements to lighten the overall mood of the play. Often, tragicomedy is a serious play that ends happily.”

English literature has a long history of comedic novels. “The phrase Romantic novel has several possible meanings. Here it refers to novels written during the Romantic era in literary history, which runs from the late 18th century until the beginning of the Victorian era in 1837. But to complicate matters there are novels written in the romance tradition by novelists like Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, George Meredith. In addition the phrase today is mostly used to refer to the popular fiction genre that focusses on romantic love. The Romantic period is especially associated with the poets William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, George Byron, Percy Shelley and John Keats, though two major novelists, Jane Austen and Walter Scott, also published in the early 19th century.” (English novelLater, England gave us the likes of Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, Oscar Wilde, etc. 

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One thing that is obvious when studying Austen’s works is that her books are not all great comic hits. Let’s face it: Persuasion, Emma, and Mansfield Park lack the comedic elements found in Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Northanger Abbey, and my comedic favorite, Lady SusanPride and Prejudice provides us with a parade of comedic characters: Mr. Bennet (charming , but indolence), Mrs. Bennet (obsessed with marrying off her daughters), Lydia and Kitty Bennet (silly girls), Mary Bennet (moralizing), Jane Bennet (too good to be true, crafted in Cinderella’s image), Caroline Bingley and Louisa Hurst (snobbish and conniving women), Sir William Lucas (living beyond his means), Mr. Collins (bungling and long-winded), and Lady Catherine de Bourgh (proud beyond reason). Only Darcy and Elizabeth escape the stroke of the comic elements for they are the “romance” in the romantic comedy. Although often they do not act with reason at times in the story, especially with their initial dismissal of each other as a potential mate, they are not characters to be laughed at. Note Austen’s many hints to that fact: 

“I am excessively diverted. ” 

Elizabeth laughed heartily at this picture of herself, and said to Colonel Fitzwilliam, “Your cousin will give you a very pretty notion of me, and teach you not to believe a word I say. I am particularly unlucky in meeting with a person so well able to expose my real character, in a part of the world where I had hoped to pass myself off with some degree of credit. Indeed, Mr. Darcy, it is very ungenerous in you to mention all that you knew to my disadvantage in Hertfordshire — and, give me leave to say, very impolitic too — for it is provoking me to retaliate, and such things may come out, as will shock your relations to hear.”

“I am not afraid of you,” said he, smilingly.

“She began now to comprehend that he was exactly the man who, in disposition and talents, would most suit her. His understanding and temper, though unlike her own, would have answered all her wishes. It was an union that must have been to the advantage of both: by her ease and liveliness, his mind might have been softened, his manners improved; and from his judgement, information, and knowledge of the world, she must have received benefit of greater importance.” 
The acknowledged lovers talked and laughed, the unacknowledged were silent. Darcy was not of a disposition in which happiness overflows in mirth; and Elizabeth, agitated and confused, rather knew that she was happy than felt herself to be so; for, besides the immediate embarrassment, there were other evils before her. She anticipated what would be felt in the family when her situation became known; she was aware that no one liked him but Jane; and even feared that with the others it was a dislike which not all his fortune and consequence might do away.
“But, Lizzy, you look as if you did not enjoy it.  You are not going to be missish, I hope, and pretend to be affronted at an idle report.  For what do we live, but to make sport for our neighbors, and laugh at them in our turn?” 
“Nothing so easy, if you have but the inclination,” said Elizabeth. “We can all plague and punish one another. Teaze him — laugh at him. — Intimate as you are, you must know how it is to be done.”

“But upon my honour I do not. I do assure you that my intimacy has not yet taught me that. Teaze calmness of temper and presence of mind! No, no — I feel he may defy us there. And as to laughter, we will not expose ourselves, if you please, by attempting to laugh without a subject. Mr. Darcy may hug himself.”

“Mr. Darcy is not to be laughed at!” cried Elizabeth. “That is an uncommon advantage, and uncommon I hope it will continue, for it would be a great loss to me to have many such acquaintance. I dearly love a laugh.”

“Miss Bingley,” said he, “has given me credit for more than can be. The wisest and the best of men, nay, the wisest and best of their actions, may be rendered ridiculous by a person whose first object in life is a joke.”

“Certainly,” replied Elizabeth — “there are such people, but I hope I am not one of them. I hope I never ridicule what is wise or good. Follies and nonsense, whims and inconsistencies do divert me, I own, and I laugh at them whenever I can. — But these, I suppose, are precisely what you are without.”

“Laugh as much as you chuse, but you will not laugh me out of my opinion. My dearest Lizzy, do but consider in what a disgraceful light it places Mr. Darcy, to be treating his father’s favourite in such a manner, — one, whom his father had promised to provide for. — It is impossible. No man of common humanity, no man who had any value for his character, could be capable of it. Can his most intimate friends be so excessively deceived in him? oh! no.”

hugh grant edward ferrars.jpg In Austen’s works and others that followed, the comedy is used to depict a series of stumbles before the hero and heroine are joined in a “happily ever after” type marriage. The couple manages to fall into one mess after the other and climbs over, through, and around a number of obstacles before they can claim what the reader hopes will be an ideal marriage. Those obstacles follow a particular pattern or motif: 

  1. intervention by a busybody, know-it all (i.e., Darcy and the Bingley sisters’ intervention in the life of Charles Bingley and Jane Bennet in Pride and Prejudice and Emma’s intervention in the life of Harriet Smith and Robert Martin in Emma)
  2. prior commitments (i.e., Darcy’s supposed engagement to his cousin Anne de Bourgh in Pride and Prejudice and Edward Ferrars’s engagement to Lucy Steele in Sense and Sensibility)
  3. opposition of the old to the idea of young love (i.e., Lady Russell opposes Anne Elliot aligning herself with Captain Frederick Wentworth in Persuasion; Fanny Price’s coming to live at Mansfield Park was originally argued by Sir Thomas, who worried about his sons’ approximation with a girl of no fortune. Also in Mansfield Park,  Mrs. Norris is far more concerned with rank and status than her sister, Lady Bertram. She doesn’t view Fanny Price with same respect and care she reserves for her Bertram nieces, Maria and Julia. She is generally dismissive of Fanny especially, and is very callous about Fanny’s health and well-being—much to Edmund’s intense annoyance and displeasure. 
  4. initial hostilities between the hero and heroine based on misunderstandings (i.e. Darcy and Elizabeth are placed behind the eight ball due to their faulty first impressions.)
  5. misjudging the true hero, preferring instead the “perfection” of the conniving pretty boy (i.e., Elizabeth Bennet’s preference for George Wickham and Marianne Dashwood’s preference for Mr. Willoughby)
  6. manipulations of the hero’s rival (i.e., George Wickham’s tales of woes to destroy Darcy’s reputations, George Wickham’s elopement with Lydia Bennet, and John Thorpe’s keeping Catherine Morland from Henry Tilney)

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Some often criticize Austen for not adding more social commentary to her stories—the slave trade, the lack of rights of women, etc.—but such does not fit the characteristics of the romantic comedy. That does not mean that Austen does not address the realities of life during the Regency era. Austen includes characters such as Lady Russell in Persuasion, who speaks of Anne’s inability to live on her own while Captain Wentworth is away at war. Then there is James Morland in Northanger Abbey. James is a bit naive, though he seems to suspect that something is seriously amiss with Isabella’s behavior fairly early. James definitely learns a harsh lesson about trusting people and forming relationships in the book, and it is a lesson that he imparts to Catherine, like a good, protective older brother. We see the same sensibility from Charlotte Lucas, who in Pride and Prejudice, agrees to marry Mr. Collins, although she would rather remain unmarried. She accepts what she cannot change and makes the best of it. All these characters bring social injustices to light, but these failures of humanity do not swallow up the tale. The simply remind the reader of what could happen in the real world. They do not take away from the happy ending expected in a romantic comedy. 

 

 

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In Want of a Wife: A Pride an Prejudice Vagary and “Romance Amnesia”

What we call “amnesia” serves as a major plot device in my latest Jane Austen variation, “In Want of a Wife.” When I began writing the book, I wanted a situation where Darcy and Elizabeth had to learn to trust each other again, without all the hoopla surrounding Lydia’s elopement, Bingley’s abandonment of Jane Bennet, Lady Catherine’s disapproval, etc. I wanted a “clean slate,” so I wiped away Elizabeth’s memory of her family and her relationship with Darcy, including the first five days of their marriage. Oops!!! 

Cover-VintageBookofAmnesia In a day and age where concussion protocol is practiced on sports fields and courts throughout America, the idea of amnesia as a plot point may appear a bit lame, but we all likely know someone who had been knocked out or fainted for a brief second or two, or perhaps minutes, who then wakes and takes a bit of time to recall where they are and what is going on. That is what happens to Elizabeth, but instead of minutes, she waits weeks to get her bearings again. In the meantime, she and Darcy are thrown together as husband and wife. One must remember that in the Regency era, marriage was FOREVER. Death do us part, and all that jazz. Divorces were very public and very expensive and, literally, took an act of Parliament. By making Elizabeth also not remember her family, she can no longer depend on others to right her mistakes. Only on Darcy and on herself.

 

In fiction, we refer to the use of amnesia to advance the story as a motif. Some refer to it as “global amnesia.” Jonathan Lethem in the introduction to his anthology, The Vintage Book of Amnesia: An Anthology of Writing on the Subject of Memory Loss, says, “Amnesia is a common motif in fiction, despite being extraordinarily rare in reality.

 

“Real, diagnosable amnesia – people getting knocked on the head and forgetting their names – is mostly just a rumor in the world. It’s a rare condition, and usually a brief one. In books and movies, though, versions of amnesia lurk everywhere, from episodes of  Mission Impossible to metafictional and absurdist masterpieces, with dozens of stops in between. Amnesiacs might not much exist, but amnesiac characters stumble everywhere through comic books, movies, and our dreams. We’ve all met them and been them.

 

“Lethem traces the roots of literary amnesia to Frank Kafka and Samuel Beckett, among others, fueled in large part by the seeping into popular culture of the work of Sigmund Freud, which also strongly influenced genre films such as film noir. Amnesia is so often used as a plot device in films, that a widely recognized stereotypical dialogue has even developed around it, with the victim melodramatically asking ‘Where am I? Who am I? What am I?’, or sometimes inquiring of his own name, ‘Bill? Who’s Bill?’” [Lethem, Jonathan (ed.) The Vintage Book of Amnesia New York: Vintage, 2000.] 
In movies and television, particularly sitcoms and soap operas, one often sees a second  blow to the head, similar to the first one which caused the amnesia, will then cure it. In reality, however, repeat concussions may cause cumulative deficits including cognitive problems, and in extremely rare cases may even cause deadly swelling of the brain associated with second-impact syndrome.  

 

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In Want of a Wife: A Pride and Prejudice Vagary 
“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” – Jane Austen 

Elizabeth Bennet Darcy wakes in an unfamiliar room, attended by a stranger, who claims she is his wife and saying she has suffered an injury to her head. He accuses her of pretending her memory loss, but to Elizabeth, the fear is real. 

“Surely you know me,” he argued. His words sounded as if he held his emotions tightly in check. “I am William. Your husband.”
She thought to protest, but the darkness had caught her hand and was leading her away from him. With one final attempt to correct his declaration, her mind formed the words, but her lips would not cooperate. Her dissent died before she could tell him: I do not have a husband!

 

Fitzwilliam Darcy despises his new wife, for he fears she has faked her love for him, better to see her family well-settled, and if love is not powerful enough to change a life, what is? 

“This is unacceptable. I realize I was never your first choice as a husband, but it is too late to change your mind. The vows have been spoken. The registry signed. You cannot deny your pledge with this ploy. I will not have it. No matter how often you call out George Wickham’s name, he will never be your husband. I will never release you.”
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Excerpt: 
 
“I plan to enjoy a walk,” Elizabeth told Mr. Nathan. She had been most disappointed when Miss Darcy did not arrive yesterday as planned, and her restlessness had gotten the better of her. Surely Georgiana would make an appearance soon. Elizabeth did not like being alone at Pemberley. Doing so brought on a return of her fears of never recovering her memory.
The butler frowned. “It is not my place to prevent your doing so, but Mr. Darcy charged me and the rest of the staff with your safety, ma’am. Might I add a caution?” Reluctantly, she nodded her acceptance of his warning. “Pemberley is well-tended by the gardeners and groundskeepers, but there is much open land that holds dangerous trails and drop-offs unless one is familiar with the contour of the area.”
Elizabeth wished to remind Mr. Nathan she was the estate’s mistress and she could do as she pleased, but she knew the man was only following Mr. Darcy’s instructions. “I do not mean to go far. Miss Darcy will hopefully arrive soon, and I wish to be here to greet her, but I require a stretch of my legs, or I might go mad.” She added a smile to assure the man she spoke figuratively.
Mr. Nathan nodded his understanding. “Then perhaps you might choose to walk the entrance road. It is wide—properly graveled—nearly a mile to the gatehouse—possesses wonderful views of the parkland and the stream—”
“And I cannot become lost,” Elizabeth finished.
“There is that also,” Mr. Nathan said in practiced tones.
Elizabeth again smiled at the man. “Then fetch my pelisse and my muff, Mr. Nathan.”
“Yes, ma’am.”
Within five minutes, she was crossing the circular drive toward the bend in the road that hid the full grandeur of Pemberley from those who dared to arrive on the property without knowledge of Pemberley House, as well as to those who called upon the estate on a regular basis.
As she walked briskly along, Elizabeth concentrated on each remarkable spot, often turning in place and pausing to admire the great variety of ground. Each step revealed more of the splendor into which she had married. “And of this place, I am to serve as mistress,” she whispered in awe.
Finally, she reached a point where the woods began in earnest. It was a considerable eminence, and Elizabeth turned back to rest her eyes on Pemberley House, which was situated on the opposite side of the valley. Its greatness and its beauty had her swallowing a bit of trepidation rushing to her chest. The manor was a large, handsome stone building, imposing in the simplicity of its architectural lines, standing well on high ground, and backed by a ridge of woody hills, which she now recognized as part of the nature trail at the edge of the lawns. She thought there could be no other place for which nature had done more good.
With a sigh of satisfaction, she set her sights on the wooded area ahead. The walk was easy because she was walking downhill. She recalled when she arrived at Pemberley, Mr. Darcy’s coach entered the park at a low point and slowly climbed to the manor house. “The return will require me to assume a slower pace,” she said with a smile. The crisp air on her cheeks felt good, as did the freedom of the exercise. In spite of her infirmity, the Lord had blessed her. She paused to count God’s favors. She closed her eyes and lifted her chin to speak to Heaven. “Thank you, God, for sparing my life and for bringing William into my world. I possess a loving and faithful husband who promises to protect both me and our family.”
“Does he?”
Elizabeth’s eyes sprang open. She turned frantically in circles, searching the thick woods for any signs of another person.
“Who is there? Show yourself,” she demanded, but there was no movement—no other sound—not even the chirp of birds or the chatter of a squirrel—nothing but the soft snap of a twig and a quick hitch of her breathing.
Suddenly frightened by the unknown, she hiked her skirt and made her feet move in the direction she had come. Constantly looking over her shoulder, she stumbled along the road she had enjoyed until this moment. “Be sensible,” she silently chastised herself, but she did not slow down. The incline she had anticipated earlier caused her to labor, her chest heaving from the exertion. 

Finally, she cleared the heavy woods, but she still did not feel safe. She silently cursed her response, but such did not slow her steps. She was in a strange place, a place she had visited previously, but of which she held no memory. Reaching the spot where she had previously viewed Pemberley in the distance, Elizabeth paused; bent over at the waist and hands braced on her knees, she struggled to capture her breath.
Then she heard it: a loud rumbling coming from the direction she had just fled.  
Posted in Austen Authors, book excerpts, book release, eBooks, Georgian England, Georgian Era, historical fiction, Jane Austen, Living in the Regency, Pride and Prejudice, Regency era, Regency romance, research, Vagary, writing | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Irish Castles in Ruins: Research for My Next Release, “Lady Chandler’s Sister”

In book 3 of my Twins’ Trilogy, entitled Lady Chandler’s Sister, the ruins of an Irish castle play out in the book’s conclusion. Therefore, I spent time looking for the right image before I wrote those final scenes. As with all these little details required to write an historical piece, some plans work. Others do not. This was a do not. Instead of an actual castle we could still see images of with a Google search, I settled on one that no longer existed, for, in that manner, I could imagine it as I wished. 

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Permission details Creative Commons Attribution Share-alike license 2.0 ~ Castles of Connacht: Barnaderg, Galway, near to Barnaderg and Castlemoyle, Ireland. A five storey O’Kelly tower house dating from the late C16. ~ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnaderg#/media/File:Castles_of_Connacht_-_Barnaderg,_Galway_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1953295.jpg

In my mind’s eye, before I began writing the scene, Barnaderg Castle (Irish: Bearna Dhearg, meaning “red gap”) in County Galway (near Tuam) was the perfect image. Five stories high, the castle could supply distance to see one’s enemies approach, but also the element of danger because of its condition. Built by Malachy O’Kelly, Barnaderg Castle was a 16th Century stronghold of the O’Kelly clan. The castle is claimed to have been one of the last castles built in Ireland. Most experts believe it once had a draw bridge, for the area surrounding the castle is saturated throughout much of the year. (Historic Sites of Ireland)

Carrigogunnell

Carrigogunnell Castle is situated 3 km north of Clarina Village, Limerick, Ireland. It was built circa 1450 and was destroyed by gunpowder in 1691. Creative Commons Attribution Share-alike license 2.0 ~ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrigogunnell#/media/File:Carrigogunnell.jpg

 

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CC BY-SA 4.0 File:Digital Eye–2015–Carrigogunnell Castle, Co. Limerick.jpg Created: 30 September 2015 ~ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrigogunnell#/media/File:Digital_Eye%E2%80%932015%E2%80%93Carrigogunnell_Castle,_Co._Limerick.jpg

Another possible choice was Carrigogunnell, again because of its location and the condition. A medieval Irish fortification, it is attributed to the to the Irish Gaelic tribe of the Dalcassians, “generally accepted by contemporary scholarship as being a branch of the Déisi Muman, that became a powerful group in Ireland during the 10th century. Their genealogies claimed descent from Cormac Cas, who is said to have lived in the 3rd century AD. Their known ancestors are the subject of The Expulsion of the Déisi tale and one branch of their blood-line went on to rule the petty kingdom of Dyfed in Wales during the 4th century; probably in alliance with Roman emperor, Magnus Maximus.” (Dalcassians)

Carrigogunnell Castle is located near the village of Clarina in County Limerick, on the banks of the River Shannon. The structure dates to at least the early 13th century, and was slighted [Slighting is the deliberate destruction, partial or complete, of a fortification without opposition, to render it unusable as a fortress.] in September 1691 after being captured during the second siege of Limerick. Unfortunately, Clarina was not in the part of Limerick I required for my tale. Close, but not close enough. Moreover, by the time I had spent hours research land routes to both Barnaderg and Carrigogunnell, I decided the time required would not fit the story.

castle connell

Engraved for Ferrar’s History of Limerick 1780, North View of Castle Connell ~ http://www.limerickcity.ie/Library/LocalStudies/BooksJournals/FerrarsHistoryofLimerick/ Castleconnells name in Irish is Caislean Ui gConnaing, which means Gunnings castle. This was because the Dal Cais Gunning family built the riverside castle over a thousand years ago, the name was then anglicised to Castleconnell by which the village and parish are still known as today. For more information log onto: http://www.castleconnell.ie (or) http://visitballyhoura.com/index.php/2012/04/16/castleconnell/

Finally, I decided on a castle that no longer stood, one closer to the city of Limerick. The roads in this part of Ireland at the time were horrendous; therefore, I chose a route from Dublin to Limerick, one supposed more passable that those in other parts of southwest Ireland at the time. Castleconnell is situated on the River Shannon some 11 km (6.8 miles) from Limerick City, near the counties Clare and Tipperary. The actual Castle of Connell was built on a rock outcrop, overlooking the bend of the river. It was the seat of the chief of Hy-Cuilean, a territory south-east of Abbeyfeale, in the barony of Upper Connello near the borders of Cork and Kerry. The castle then came into the possession of the O’Briens of Thomond.  The castle was blown up by General Godert de Ginkel during the War of the Two Kings (also called the Williamite War in Ireland or the Jacobite War in Ireland). Ginkel was fighting in support of the Army of William of Orange. A large portion of the castle wall lies some 50 feet from the castle, thrown across the road by siege cannons. 

There you have it. I settled for my imagination, rather than an actual place. 

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Arriving March 25, 2019 

Lady Chandler’s Sister: Book 3 of the Twins’ Trilogy

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Posted in book release, buildings and structures, castles, eBooks, Great Britain, historical fiction, history, Ireland, Living in the Regency, publishing, real life tales, Regency era, Regency romance, romance, Scotland, trilogy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments