Settling for the Compromise Marriage
What hope was there for the dowerless daughters of the middle class during Jane Austen’s lifetime? Such is a topic Austen explored repeatedly in her novels. Elizabeth and Jane Bennet sought men of a like mind. The Dashwood sisters found their choices limited by their financial situation. Fanny Harville and Captain Benwick could not marry until he earned his future. General Tilney drove Catherine Morland from his home because of the lady’s lack of funds. Charlotte Lucas accepted Mr. Collins as her last opportunity for a respectable match. The intricacies and tedium of high society, particularly of partner selection, and the conflicts of marriage for love and marriage for property are repeated themes.
Marriage provided women with financial security. Henry Tilney of Northanger Abbeyexplains, “… in both [marriage and a country dance], man has the advantage of choice, woman only the power of refusal: that in both, it is an engagement between man and woman, formed for the advantage of each.” Women of Austen’s gentry class had no legal identity. No matter how clever the woman might be, finding a husband was the only option. A woman could not buy property or write a will without her husband’s approval. If a woman was fortunate, she would bring to her marriage a settlement – money secured for her when she came of age – usually an inheritance from her mother. The oldest son or male heir received the family estate, and the unmarried or widowed females lived on his kindness.
The ladies of Sense and Sensibility have this reality thrust upon them when Uncle Dashwood changes his will and leaves Norland to his grandnephew. In Uncle Dashwood’s thinking, this change will keep Norland in the Dashwood family. However, the four Dashwood ladies suddenly find themselves living in a modest cottage with an income of £500 annually. As such, they have no occasion for visits to London unless someone else assumes the expenses. Their social circle shrinks, and the opportunities to meet eligible suitors becomes nearly non-existent. With dowries of £1000 each, the Dashwood sisters are not likely to attract a man who will improve their lots.
Jane Austen, herself, lived quite modestly. The Austens lived frugally among the country gentry. The Austen sisters were well educated by the standards of the day, but without chances for dowries, Jane and Cassandra possessed limited prospects. Jane met a Mr. Blackall the year Cassandra lost her Mr. Fowle. In a letter, Blackall expressed to Mrs. Lefroy a desire to know Jane better; yet, he confided, “But at present I cannot indulge any expectation of it.” To which, Jane Austen responded, “This is rational enough. There is less love and more sense in it than sometimes appeared before, and I am very well satisfied.” Imperfect opportunities were Jane Austen’s reality. In 1802, Jane Austen accepted an offer of marriage from Harris Bigg. With this marriage, Jane would have become the mistress of Manydown.
Yet, despite her affection for the family, Austen could not deceive Bigg. The following morning, she refused the man’s proposal. Whether she thought to some day find another or whether Austen accepted the fact that her refusal doomed her to a life as a spinster, we shall never know. In the “limited” world in which Jane Austen lived, she could not have known her eventual influence on the literary canon.
Austen held personal knowledge of young women seeking husbands in one of the British colonies. Reverend Austen’s sister, Philadelphia, traveled to India in 1752, where she married an English surgeon Tysoe Hancock, a man twenty years her senior. When the Hancocks returned to England a decade later, Reverend Austen traveled to London to greet his sister. However, Philadelphia and Tysoe were not to live “happily ever after.” Unable to support his family in proper English style, Tysoe returned to India to make his living. He never saw his wife and child again. Despite its tragic ending, this “marriage” secured Philadelphia’s future and the lady’s place in society. Only marriage could offer a woman respectability.
In Jane Austen for Dummies (page 134), Joan Klingel Ray breaks down the financial prospects of the Dashwood sisters. Converting the £500 to a modern equivalent, Ray comes out with a figure of $46,875. For the gentry, supporting four women, two maids, a man servant, paying rent, buying clothes, food, coal, etc., that sum would have meant a poor existence. I find in reading Sense and Sensibility that I am often disappointed with the eventual choices of the Dashwood sisters. Edward Ferras and Colonel Brandon have less of the “glitz and the glamour” that my innate Cinderella syndrome requires in a love match. However, if any affection did exist between the couples, then Marianne and Elinor, under the circumstances and the times, made brilliant matches. They settled for the “compromise” marriage common in the Regency era.
Thoughtful post, Regina. Thank you. I tweeted.
Thank you for sharing the post with others, Ella.
I enjoyed this post. I like to think that, no matter the HEAs JA gave all her heroines, she was happy to remain single. She had a chance to marry, had her bit of romance, yet chose to remain single. The fact that she chose singlehood means something to me. Her family loved her and she had her writing. As for S&S, I too was always less than impressed with the end pairings. Col Brandon was a good guy but I don’t think he married Marianne for the right reasons. And Edward was a descent enough guy, but he certainly didn’t sweep Elinor off her feet. My end feeling is that I’ll be happy for them b/c they are happy… maybe. And, btw, Henry Tilney is great. There’s another pairing that always made me sad in the end. Catherine Morland was not his equal.
I agree with you, Lisa, regarding Henry Tilney. However, as his funds were limited due his position, Catherine Morland might have served him well. Marriages of convenience are brought forward to modern times. HEA is hard to achieve, especially in an age of an easy divorce.
Enjoyed your post. This is a topic that has always interested me.
A marriage of convenience was always a topic that “infuriated” my students when I taught Austen in my classrooms.
Thanks for joining me, Janet. I thought you might enjoy the mix.
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So interesting, Regina. I love looking into the details of the Austen’s lives. Tweeted
Thanks for sharing this post with others, Nancy. It was very nice of you to do so. I was pleased this morning when Maria Grazia shared it from her Italian blog.
Reblogged this on Rogues, Rebels & Rakes and commented:
For want of a husband… Love this blog post by Regina Jeffers and wanted to share it with you, me hearties!
Katherine, I am pleased you found something worth reblogging in this post. Every day, I learn something new about Austen and the Regency period. One would think after a lifetime of reading both, that fact would be improbable.