Regency Era Lexicon – Nearing the End: We’re at “W”
wafer – made of flour and gum; one dampened the wafer and then placed it on a letter to seal it
waggonette – a four-wheel lightweight carriage; used for pleasure trips such as picnics, etc.; common mode of transportation for the rural middle-class; could seat 6; very popular after the mid 1800s
Walcot Church – the site of the marriage of George Austen (1731-1805) to Miss Cassandra Leigh (1739-1827) on April 26, 1764; located in Bath
wainscoting – a “fancy” oak imported from Russia, Holland, or Germany; the term “wainscoting” was applied to panels originally made of such oak
waistcoat – a vest for a gentleman; worn over the shirt and under the coat. Colors, patterns, and fabrics varied and anything was allowed. Could be single- or double-breasted, with or without collars or lapels, but must have a couple small pockets for a man’s accoutrements, such as a pocketwatch or fob.
waistband – the part of a skirt or pants (around the waist) in which money was kept
walking out – long romantic walks were discouraged; there was a “no time alone in private” rule for courtship
wallflower – a young lady repeatedly without a partner at a ball/assembly; gentlemen were expected to ask young ladies who were seated without a partner to dance
waltz – introduced to England from Germany in 1812; was considered scandalous as it required the partners to be in close proximity to each other;a lady required the consent of one of the Patronesses of Almack’s for her first waltz; was finally approved by England’s great dancing arbiter, Thomas Wilson, in 1816; even then, the waltz was only approved for married couples
want—Want means not only desire, but lack, both as a noun and a verb. When Mandeville says that the bees in The Grumbling Hive “wanted Dice,” he means that they lacked them; “lost the opportunity for want of money” means “because of a lack of.” (18th Century Vocabulary)
ward – a child under the care of a guardian and not his parents; wards in Chancery were so assigned by the courts; a Chancery ward could not marry or enter into a contract without the court’s permission
wardrobe – large wooden cupboard used for hanging clothes
warrant officer – an officer in the Royal Navy; usually a boatswain, carpenter, or surgeon; his position was attained by warrant rather than by commission
washhand stand – a small table in the bedroom that held water, soap, towels, etc., for the occupant’s ablutions; changed several times daily by a household maid
Watch – men who policed the streets at night; called out the time and weather at set intervals
watch guard – a chain or ribbon attached to a watch/timepiece to keep it attached to the gentleman’s clothing
water butt – a barrel placed under the eaves to catch rain water for washing, etc.
water cart – used to keep the dust down on dirty streets; water was released through small holes in a barrel as the cart rolled along the streets
watering place – resorts such as Bath and Mudeford where one went to drink or bathe in the “healing” waters
Waterloo – The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blucher. It was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon’s last. The defeat at Waterloo ended his rule as Emperor of the French, marking the end of his Hundred Days return from exile.
watermen – rowed people out to boats on the River Thames or across the river for a fee
watermen – stood at hackney stands and gave water to the horses
wedding clothes – a woman’s parents purchased her an entire wardrobe (from ball gowns to riding habits) for the wedding; the bride traditionally wore a formal white bridal gown (the girl had the option of wearing her best dress, which could be any color except black or red); the dress was, generally, a white muslin columnar or tube-shaped dress, which was decorated with fine needlework; serving as underwear, a white chemise was worn beneath the gown; men wore his best clothes; the groom usually spent his money on a new coach
wedding protocol – weddings occurred during the canonical hours (between 8 A.M. and noon), unless the couple had a special license, which allowed them to marry later in the day, if they chose; usually, only friends and family were invited to the ceremony (unless the couple were extremely showy or held a place of importance in Society); the ceremony was followed by a wedding breakfast; at the breakfast the couple would often distribute little gifts to their guests
weeds – mourning clothes
weepers – symbols of mourning easily spied by the public, such as a black band on a man’s hat or a long black veil worn by a lady
welkin—a poetic term for the sky
Wellington, Duke of – Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was a British soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political leaders of the 19th Century; defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo; later became Prime Minister; was responsible for passing the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829
wet nurse – hired to breast feed a child not her own
West End – the western part of London, reaching from Charing Cross to the western boundary of Hyde Park; included Buckingham Palace, Mayfair, and St. James’s Park
Westminster – a separate city west of London (before London expansion); home of the monarch and Westminster Abbey, the royal palaces of Whitehall and St. James, the Palace of Westminster, the royal courts and Parliament
whalebone – used to reinforce the corsets worn by ladies of the day
wheelers – horses harnessed closest to the carriage (“leaders” were the farthest away)
wherry—a small rowboat
Whig Party – the Whig Party was revived by Charles James Fox (1749-1806); the Whigs supported the reformists, religious dissent, and the need for electoral and parliamentary change; keep in mind that during the Regency, only rich landowners could vote
whippers-in – assistants of the huntsman during a fox hunt; kept the hounds together (“whips” became the term for party members who kept tabs on others in their Parliamentary party to make them available for crucial votes)
whist – a card game similar to bridge for 2-4 players
wit—One of the most loaded words of the eighteenth century. It means something like “mental faculties” in general, but it also has a more restricted sense—imagination, fancy, quick-wittedness. It can also mean a person who has wit—someone with a fine sense of humor (especially one with a satirical edge), an intellectual, or any writer. Pope’s definition is famous and intriguing, though not especially helpful: “True Wit is Nature to Advantage drest,/What oft was Thought, but ne’er so well Exprest.” Johnson’s definitions are more precise; with their examples, they stretch to several pages, but here are the definitions from his Dictionary: “1. The powers of the mind; the mental faculties; the intellects. 2. Imagination; quickness of fancy. 3. Sentiments produced by quickness of fancy. 4. A man of fancy. 5. A man of genius. 6. Sense; judgment. 7. In the plural. Sound mind; intellect not crazed. 8. Contrivance; stratagem; power of expedients.” (18th Century Vocabulary)
White’s Club – The premier gentleman’s club of the Regency is also the oldest in London, and has its origins in White’s Chocolate House, which opened in 1693. In 1736, White’s began to operate as a private club on St. James’s Street. Four years later it moved across the street to larger premises, which burnt down in 1753. The club then relocated in a building at the top of St. James’s, where it still stands. Shortly after the original club was formed everyone wanted in and the rush for membership became overwhelming. A second club was formed called the Young Club. Vacancies in the original Old Club were filled by members of the Young Club. The two clubs were finally merged into one in 1781. White’s and other exclusive gentlemen’s clubs in London used a method of voting for proposed new members whereby a system of black and white balls were deposited, in secret by each election committee member, into a special box. A single black ball was sufficient to deny membership. Hence the term ‘blackballed.’
white gowns – Most gowns of the period were made from muslin, a fine cotton fabric. White was the favorite color of muslin gowns because it appeared very classical (like the marble statues of Ancient Greece and Rome, which were very much in vogue at the time), and a white gown indicated the wearer was rich enough to employ maids to keep the gown white.
Whitehall – home of the Admiralty, the Treasury, the prime minster’s residence at 10 Downing Street, the Horse Guards, the army headquarters, etc.
Whitsun – the seventh Sunday after Easter; also known as Pentecost
William Wilberforce – an Evangelical reformer (1759-1833) who strongly opposed the slave trade
wilderness – an area in a park or garden where one found many trees, as opposed to the groomed lawns
Windsor – a town on the Thames west of London; housed a palace of the royal family
withdraw – to take back or leave
Mary Wollstonecraft – the most famous champion of women’s rights of the period; she authored A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792); Wollstonecraft accused Fordyce’s Sermons of creating “artificial grace” in females
woolsack – the Lord Chancellor sat on a sack filled with wool while presiding over the House of Lords; therefore, “elevated to the woolsack,” meant to assume the position as Lord Chancellor
The Wonder – A Woman Keeps a Secret– a comedic play by Susanna Centlivre, which dealt with ladies and gentlemen in love and with the jealousy love can entail
workbox – sewing, embroidery, etc.; women’s “work”
workhouse – the place where those unable to care for themselves went for food and shelter in exchange for work
worsted – a fancy wool yarn; named for the place in Norfolk where the wool was made
wrangler – the name given to those taking top honors in math at Cambridge
Just for a change a couple of comments Jeffers, Waistcoat is usually pronunced as weskit for some unknown reason; and the Waltz (how I loved to waltz) theres the Whisk The Whirl and the Telemark also the Wing glorious I remember them well) so 3 W descending from the Waltz., Under watering place you mentioned Bath as a seaside resort, I suppose if you consider a short stroll to Bristol some 12 miles away a seaside resort then you’re perfectly correct as Mr Darcy would be want to say 😀 :D, But seriously Regina Bath is someway away from the seaside as I recall.
I agree, Brian.
Well I’m glad of that ; (says he facetiously)
By the bye Regina I couldn’t open up your post on Mansfield Park, is this one that sliped under the radar and was not due for publication?
The Mansfield Park post came out of order. The 1999 film will be discussed on Monday and the 2007 mini-series the following Monday.