M.P. – a member of Parliament
macintosh – (not a computer by Apple) invented by Charles Macintosh in the 1820s; rubberized waterproof clothing; originally these smelled “terrible”
madeira – a sweet white wine
magic lantern – The magic lantern has a concave mirror in front of a light source that gathers light and projects it through a slide with an image scanned onto it. The light rays cross an aperture (which is an opening at the front of the apparatus), and hit a lens. The lens throws an enlarged picture of the original image from the slide onto a screen. Main light sources used during the time it was invented in the late 16th century were candles or oil lamps. These light sources were quite inefficient and produced weak projections. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s helped to make the projected images brighter. The invention of the limelight in the 1820s made it even brighter.
magistrate – another term for a justice of peace; where justices were usually unsalaried country gentlemen, magistrates received a stipend
maid-of-all-work – a maid who performed all the chores in those households, which could afford only one servant
“making love” – During the Regency, this phrase held no physical or sexual connotations. It simply meant verbal flirting or visual flirting (as in a knowing glance across a crowded ballroom).
mail coaches – replaced the ill-conceived post boys in 1784; delivered the post to and from rural areas; was also a means of transportation for many
“making violent love” – is telling the person of the depth of one’s love (i.e., Mr. Elton in “Emma”)
male inheritance defines a “gentleman’s status” – a true gentleman was a man of property; very likely he inherited his country estate and manor from his father; no other requirements were needed to define a “gentleman”
mangle – A mangle (as it is called in the United Kingdom) or wringer (as it is called in the United States) is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers in a sturdy frame, connected by cogs and, in its home version, powered by a hand crank.
man-of-war – large ship built specifically for warfare; The term often refers to a ship armed with cannon and propelled primarily by sails, as opposed to a galley which is propelled primarily by oars. The man-of-war was developed in England in the early 16th century from earlier roundships with the addition of a second mast to form the carrack.
man-trap – used to catch poachers; steel traps weighing up to 80 pounds
mantua-maker – a term for a dressmaker, based on the type of gown she made
marquise/marchioness – wife or widow of a marquis
marl – soil used as a fertilizer; it contained clay
marquis/marquess – the second highest rank of the peerage after a duke
marriage – was more of a business arrangement than a romantic attachment; the girl’s father/guardian assured her financial protection
marriage settlement/articles – a contract between the future bride and groom, which stipulated how the gentleman’s money would be settled upon the wife and future children upon his death
Martin’s Day- Martinmas, November 11; “Martin’s summer” was used to describe a period of good weather continuing into the late autumn
Master of Ceremonies – employed to oversee the protocol of the large public assemblies (especially those held at the Upper and Lower Rooms in Bath); introduced young ladies and gentlemen to each other so they might dance together (i.e., Henry Tilney and Catherine Morland in “Northanger Abbey”); held knowledge of people’s backgrounds and shared information discreetly; Mr. James King was the MC for the Lower Rooms from 1785-1805, then moved to the Upper Rooms
Mayfair – a half mile square in London’s West End; bounded by Oxford Street on the north, Bond Street on the east, Piccadilly on the south, and Hyde Park on the west; contains Pall Mall, Grosvenor Square, and Berkeley Square; the most elite residential area of London
merino – a superior wool from Spain
mews – any lane or open area where a group of stables could be found
Michaelmas – the feast of St. Michael, which is held on September 29; one of the quarter days
Middlesex – the county in which London north of the Thames was located (to the south was Surrey)
Midsummer Day – another quarter day; celebrated on June 24, which was also the feast of John the Baptist
militia – volunteer soldiers; unlike the regular army, a man from a lower class could enter the militia as an officer
milliner – a maker of women’s hats
“Miss” – used with a surname meant the eldest of several sisters (as in Jane Bennet in Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice,” she is Miss Bennet, while the other girls are Miss Elizabeth, Miss Mary, Miss Catherine, and Miss Lydia, respectively)
“Mister” – used with the man’s surname to indicate a surgeon or apothecary; a physician was “Doctor”; also males not of the aristocracy; of the gentry class (as in Mr. Bennet in “Pride and Prejudice”)
mobcap – a standard indoor headgear; A mob cap or mob-cap is a round, gathered or pleated cloth (usually linen) bonnet consisting of a caul to cover the hair, a frilled or ruffled brim, and (often) a ribbon band, worn by married women in the era.
minuet – a French dance for two people
moor – a wild, desolate area in Yorkshire, which is usually covered by heather; a term used in northern England and southern Scotland to designate a boggy or marshy area
morning calls – ceremonial visits paid by the genteel to ladies “at home” in their drawing rooms; Less formal visits, morning calls were actually paid between the time of rising and that of eating dinner, effectively between eleven in the morning and three in the afternoon. Earlier calls might interfere with breakfast or a lady’s morning household duties. Later visits might suggest indecorous attempts at securing an invitation for dinner. The earlier in the day, the less close the acquaintance, the later the greater degree of intimacy between the parties.
muslin – a fine quality of cotton; very thin material; some young women wore muslin dresses with damped down chemises underneath
mute – a person hired to attend a funeral and mourn
Macadam I think deserves a place here Regina, It was pioneered in 1820 so I think it just scrapes in, you probably see it everytime you get into your Buick and head out. It’s the surface of the road pioneered by another Scot John Loudon MacAdam, of course his initial idea has been greatly improved upon but pretty well all road construction these days have there roots in MacAdams, macadam.
John Loudon Mcadam is a real-life character in one of my scenes in “A Touch of Honor: Book 7 of the Realm Series.” I did a bit of research on him when I was writing the story line. John Loudon McAdam (21 September 1756 – 26 November 1836) was a Scottish engineer and road-builder. He invented a new process, “macadamisation”, for building roads with a smooth hard surface, using controlled materials of mixed particle size and predetermined structure, that would be more durable and less muddy than soil-based tracks. In two treatises written in 1816 and 1819 (Remarks on the Present System of Road-Making and Practical Essay on the Scientific Repair and Preservation of Roads) he argued that roads needed to be raised above the surrounding ground and constructed from layered rocks and gravel in a systematic manner.
McAdam had also been appointed surveyor to the Bristol Turnpike Trust in 1816, where he decided to remake the roads under his care with crushed stone bound with gravel on a firm base of large stones. A camber, making the road slightly convex, ensured rainwater rapidly drained off the road rather than penetrate and damage the road’s foundations. This construction method, the greatest advance in road construction since Roman times, became known as “macadamisation”, or, more simply, “macadam”.